Restoration of Mitochondrial Cardiolipin Attenuates Cardiac Damage in Swine Renovascular Hypertension
Eirin A, Ebrahimi B, Kwon SH, Fiala JA, Williams BJ, Woollard JR, He Q, Gupta RC, Sabbah HN, Prakash YS, Textor SC, Lerman A, Lerman LO. Restoration of mitochondrial cardiolipin attenuates cardiac damage in swine renovascular hypertension. J Am Heart Assoc. 2016;5(6)
J Am Heart Assoc
BACKGROUND: Renovascular hypertension (RVH) impairs cardiac structure and left ventricular (LV) function, but whether mitochondrial injury is implicated in RVH-induced myocardial damage and dysfunction has not been defined. We hypothesized that cardiac remodeling in swine RVH is partly attributable to cardiac mitochondrial injury.
METHODS AND RESULTS: After 12 weeks of hypercholesterolemic (HC)-RVH or control (n=14 each), pigs were treated for another 4 weeks with vehicle or with the mitochondrial-targeted peptide (MTP), Bendavia (0.1 mg/kg subcutaneously, 5 days/week), which stabilizes mitochondrial inner-membrane cardiolipin (n=7 each). Cardiac function was subsequently assessed by multidetector-computed tomography and oxygenation by blood-oxygen-level-dependent magnetic resonance imaging. Cardiolipin content, mitochondrial biogenesis, as well as sarcoplasmic-reticulum calcium cycling, myocardial tissue injury, and coronary endothelial function were assessed ex vivo. Additionally, mitochondrial cardiolipin content, oxidative stress, and bioenergetics were assessed in rat cardiomyocytes incubated with tert-butyl hydroperoxide (tBHP) untreated or treated with MTP. Chronic mitoprotection in vivo restored cardiolipin content and mitochondrial biogenesis. Thapsigargin-sensitive sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+)-ATPase activity that declined in HC-RVH normalized in MTP-treated pigs. Mitoprotection also improved LV relaxation (E/A ratio) and ameliorated cardiac hypertrophy, without affecting blood pressure or systolic function. Myocardial remodeling and coronary endothelial function improved only in MTP-treated pigs. In tBHP-treated cardiomyocytes, mitochondrial targeting attenuated a fall in cardiolipin content and bioenergetics.
CONCLUSIONS: Chronic mitoprotection blunted myocardial hypertrophy, improved LV relaxation, and attenuated myocardial cellular and microvascular remodeling, despite sustained HC-RVH, suggesting that mitochondrial injury partly contributes to hypertensive cardiomyopathy.
Medical Subject Headings
Animals; Antioxidants; Apoptosis; Cardiolipins; Cardiomyopathies; Disease Models, Animal; Enzyme Inhibitors; Female; Hypertension, Renovascular; Magnetic Resonance Angiography; Microvessels; Mitochondria, Heart; Mitochondrial Diseases; Multidetector Computed Tomography; Oligopeptides; Random Allocation; Renal Artery Obstruction; Sarcoplasmic Reticulum Calcium-Transporting ATPases; Sus scrofa; Swine; Ventricular Dysfunction, Left; Ventricular Remodeling; tert-Butylhydroperoxide