Nona P, Mahmood S, Lemor A, Qintar M, O'Neill B, Lee J, Frisoli T, Wang DD, Eng M, O'Neill WW, and Villablanca PA. Incidence of acquired ventricular septal defect after transcatheter aortic valve replacement: A large single center experience. Catheter Cardiovasc Interv 2021.
Catheterization and cardiovascular interventions
OBJECTIVE: To determine the rate and clinical outcomes of post-TAVR VSD.
BACKGROUND: Transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) is a safe and established procedure for patients with severe symptomatic aortic stenosis. Ventricular septal defect (VSD) is a rare complication of TAVR. The rate of post-TAVR VSD and patient outcomes are not well known.
METHODS: A retrospective record review of VSD cases occurring after all TAVRs performed between January 2012 and September 2020 at one urban US tertiary hospital. VSD rate and early- and long-term outcomes were analyzed. Computed tomography images taken before TAVR and transthoracic echocardiograms done before and after each procedure were analyzed.
RESULTS: Of the 1908 patients who underwent TAVR in the study period, 7 patients (0.37%) had post-procedure VSD. The average patient age was 77 ± 11 years with average society of thoracic surgeons short-term risk score of 6%. All 7 implanted valves were balloon-expandable. Of the 7 TAVR procedures, 5 were performed on a native tricuspid valve, 1 was performed on a native bicuspid valve, and 1 was done as a "valve-in-valve" procedure on a prior surgical bioprosthetic valve. All VSDs were small and restrictive in nature. Right heart failure in a patient with preexisting right ventricular dysfunction occurred in 1 (13%) patient who died. The remaining 6 patients (86%) were discharged. All 6 patients (86%) were alive and stable at 1 year follow-up, reporting improvement in symptoms (NYHA class I-II), with no evidence of right ventricular dysfunction.
CONCLUSION: VSD is a rare complication of TAVR. Hemodynamic and clinical sequelae in majority of the patients in this study did not result in mortality. Proper imaging techniques and appropriate pre-procedure planning are needed to decrease the incidence of VSD formation post-TAVR.
ePub ahead of print