Document Type


Publication Date


Publication Title

Catheterization and cardiovascular interventions


OBJECTIVE: To determine the rate and clinical outcomes of post-TAVR VSD.

BACKGROUND: Transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) is a safe and established procedure for patients with severe symptomatic aortic stenosis. Ventricular septal defect (VSD) is a rare complication of TAVR. The rate of post-TAVR VSD and patient outcomes are not well known.

METHODS: A retrospective record review of VSD cases occurring after all TAVRs performed between January 2012 and September 2020 at one urban US tertiary hospital. VSD rate and early- and long-term outcomes were analyzed. Computed tomography images taken before TAVR and transthoracic echocardiograms done before and after each procedure were analyzed.

RESULTS: Of the 1908 patients who underwent TAVR in the study period, 7 patients (0.37%) had post-procedure VSD. The average patient age was 77 ± 11 years with average society of thoracic surgeons short-term risk score of 6%. All 7 implanted valves were balloon-expandable. Of the 7 TAVR procedures, 5 were performed on a native tricuspid valve, 1 was performed on a native bicuspid valve, and 1 was done as a "valve-in-valve" procedure on a prior surgical bioprosthetic valve. All VSDs were small and restrictive in nature. Right heart failure in a patient with preexisting right ventricular dysfunction occurred in 1 (13%) patient who died. The remaining 6 patients (86%) were discharged. All 6 patients (86%) were alive and stable at 1 year follow-up, reporting improvement in symptoms (NYHA class I-II), with no evidence of right ventricular dysfunction.

CONCLUSION: VSD is a rare complication of TAVR. Hemodynamic and clinical sequelae in majority of the patients in this study did not result in mortality. Proper imaging techniques and appropriate pre-procedure planning are needed to decrease the incidence of VSD formation post-TAVR.

PubMed ID



ePub ahead of print