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Catheterization and cardiovascular interventions


BACKGROUND: Mechanical circulatory support (MCS) devices are increasingly used for hemodynamic support in cardiogenic shock or high-risk percutaneous coronary interventions. Vascular complications remain a major source of morbidity and mortality despite technological advances with percutaneous techniques. Little is known about the rates and predictors of vascular complications with large-bore access MCS in the contemporary era.

METHODS: The study cohort was derived from National Inpatient Sample using data from 2015 to 2019 for cardiac hospitalizations with the use of: intra-aortic balloon pump (IABP) Impella, and/or extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO). The rates of vascular complications and in-hospital outcomes were analyzed using multivariable logistic regression.

RESULTS: Of 221,700 hospitalizations with MCS use, the majority had only IABP (68%). The rates of vascular complications were greatest with ECMO (15.8%) when compared with IABP (3.0%) and Impella (5.6%). Among patients with vascular complications, in-hospital mortality was higher with ECMO (56.3%) when compared with IABP (26.2%) and Impella (33.8%). Peripheral arterial disease (PAD) was the strongest predictor of vascular complications, with 10 times higher odds when present (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 10.96, p < 0.001). In risk-adjusted models, when compared with IABP, the use of Impella (aOR: 1.73, p < 0.001), ECMO (aOR: 5.35, p < 0.001), or a combination of MCS devices (aOR: 3.47, p < 0.001) was associated with higher odds of vascular complications.

CONCLUSIONS: In contemporary practice, the use of MCS is associated with significant vascular complications and in-hospital mortality. Predictors of vascular complications include larger arteriotomy size, female gender, and peripheral arterial disease. Vascular access management remains essential to prevent major complications.

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ePub ahead of print



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