Advanced Heart Failure Therapies and Cardiorenal Syndrome
Cowger JA, Radjef R. Advanced heart failure therapies and cardiorenal syndrome. Adv Chronic Kidney Dis. Sep 2018;25(5):443-453.
Advances in chronic kidney disease
Heart failure (HF) is extremely prevalent and for those with end-stage (stage D) disease, 1-year survival is only 25-50%. Several studies have captured the mortality impact of kidney disease on patients with HF, and measures of kidney function are a component of many HF risk stratification scores. The management of advanced HF complicated by cardiorenal syndrome (CRS) is challenging, and irreversible kidney failure often limits patient candidacy for advanced HF therapies, such as transplant or left ventricular assist device therapy. Thus, prompt institution of aggressive therapy is warranted in stage D HF patients with CRS to prevent irreversible kidney failure. In this chapter, we discuss the assessment and management of patients with CRS with end-stage HF. In addition to discussing medical therapy aimed at decongestion and increased cardiac inotropy, we provide a summary of temporary circulatory support devices that can be considered for those whom hospice is not desired. In all circumstances, a close collaboration between the advanced HF specialist and nephrologist is needed to achieve the best patient outcomes.