Comparison of ICD-9 codes for depression and alcohol misuse to survey instruments suggests these codes should be used with caution
Boscarino JA, Moorman AC, Rupp LB, Zhou Y, Lu M, Teshale EH, Gordon SC, Spradling PR, Schmidt MA, Trinacty CM, Zhong Y, Holmberg SD, Holtzman D. Comparison of ICD-9 codes for depression and alcohol misuse to survey instruments suggests these codes should be used with caution. Digestive diseases and sciences 2017; 62(10):2704-2712.
Digestive diseases and sciences
BACKGROUND: Research suggests depression and alcohol misuse are highly prevalent among chronic hepatitis C (CHC) patients, which is of clinical concern.
AIMS: To compare ICD-9 codes for depression and alcohol misuse to validated survey instruments.
METHODS: Among CHC patients, we assessed how well electronic ICD-9 codes for depression and alcohol misuse predicted these disorders using validated instruments.
RESULTS: Of 4874 patients surveyed, 56% were male and 52% had a history of injection drug use. Based on the PHQ-8, the prevalence of depression was 30% compared to 14% based on ICD-9 codes within 12 months of survey, 37% from ICD-9 codes any time before or within 12 months after survey, and 48% from ICD-9 codes any time before or within 24 months after survey. ICD-9 codes predicting PHQ-8 depression had a sensitivity ranging from 59 to 88% and a specificity ranging from 33 to 65%. Based on the AUDIT-C, the prevalence of alcohol misuse was 21% compared to 3-23% using ICD-9 codes. The sensitivity of ICD-9 codes to predict AUDIT-C score ranged from 9 to 35% and specificity from 80 to 98%. Overall 39% of patients reported ever binge drinking, with a sensitivity of ICD-9 to predict binge drinking ranging from 7 to 33% and a specificity from 84 to 98%. More than half of patients had either an ICD-9 code for depression, a survey score indicating depression, or both (59%); more than one-third had the same patterns for alcohol misuse (36%).
CONCLUSIONS: ICD-9 codes were limited in predicting current depression and alcohol misuse, suggesting that caution should be exercised when using ICD-9 codes to assess depression or alcohol misuse among CHC patients.
Medical Subject Headings
Adolescent; Adult; Aged; Alcoholism; Data Mining; Depression; Electronic Health Records; Female; Health Surveys; Hepatitis C, Chronic; Humans; International Classification of Diseases; Male; Middle Aged; Prevalence; Time Factors; United States; Young Adult