Injectable and topical neurotoxins in dermatology: Indications, adverse events, and controversies.
Giordano C, Matarasso S, Ozog D. Injectable and topical neurotoxins in dermatology: Indications, adverse events, and controversies.. Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology 2017; 76(6):1027-1042.
Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology
The use of neuromodulators for therapeutic and cosmetic indications has proven to be remarkably safe. While aesthetic and functional adverse events are uncommon, each anatomic region has its own set of risks of which the physician and patient must be aware before treatment. The therapeutic usages of botulinum toxins now include multiple specialties and multiple indications. New aesthetic indications have also developed, and there has been an increased utilization of combination therapies to combat the effects of global aging. In the second article in this continuing medical education series, we review the prevention and treatment of adverse events, therapeutic and novel aesthetic indications, controversies, and a brief overview of combination therapies.
Medical Subject Headings
Administration, Topical; Botulinum Toxins; Cosmetic Techniques; Dermatology; Humans; Injections; Neurotoxins