Long-wavelength Ultraviolet A1 and Visible Light Photoprotection: A Multimodality Assessment of Dose and Response.
Kohli I, Braunberger TL, Nahhas AF, Mirza FN, Mokhtari M, Lyons AB, Kollias N, Ruvolo E, Lim HW, and Hamzavi IH. Long-wavelength Ultraviolet A1 and Visible Light Photoprotection: A Multimodality Assessment of Dose and Response. Photochem Photobiol 2020; 96(1):208-214.
Photochemistry and photobiology
Human skin is exposed to visible light (VL; 400-700 nm) and long-wavelength ultraviolet A1 (UVA1) radiation (370-400 nm) after the application of organic broad-spectrum sunscreens. The biologic effects of these wavelengths have been demonstrated; however, a dose-response has not been investigated. Ten subjects with Fitzpatrick skin phototype IV-VI were enrolled. Subjects were irradiated with 2 light sources (80-480 J cm(-2) ): one comprising VL with less than 0.5% UVA1 (VL+UVA1) and the other pure VL. Skin responses were evaluated for 2 weeks using clinical and spectroscopic assessments. 4-mm punch biopsies were obtained from nonirradiated skin and sites irradiated with 480 J cm(-2) of VL+UVA1 and pure VL 24 h after irradiation. Clinical and spectroscopic assessments demonstrated a robust response at VL+UVA1 sites compared with pure VL. Histology findings demonstrated a statistically significant increase in the marker of inflammation (P < 0.05) and proliferation (P < 0.05) at the irradiated sites compared with nonirradiated control. Threshold doses of VL+UVA1 resulting in biologic responses were calculated. Results indicate that approximately 2 h of sun exposure, which equates to VL+UVA1 dose (~400 J cm(-2) ), is capable of inducing inflammation, immediate erythema and delayed tanning. These findings reinforce the need of photoprotection beyond the UV range.