Raccurt CP, Brasseur P, Ciceron M, Parke DM, Zervos MJ, and Boncy J. In vivo study of Plasmodium falciparum chloroquine susceptibility in three departments of Haiti. Malar J 2017; 16(1):313.
BACKGROUND: Malaria is considered a public health priority in Haiti, with a goal to eliminate by year 2020. Chloroquine is the first-line treatment recommended by the Ministry of Public Health and Population. In order to verify the suitability of chloroquine for uncomplicated malaria treatment, an in vivo study of susceptibility of Plasmodium falciparum to chloroquine was conducted from January 2013 to March 2015 in six localities in the south of Haiti.
RESULTS: Sixty-one patients who presented with confirmed P. falciparum malaria were included in the study and followed until day 28 after having taken 25 mg/kg of chloroquine orally over 3 days. The sample included 28 children under the age of 10, 9 adolescents aged 10-19 years, and 24 adults aged 20 years and over. Among them, 30 were monitored on day 3 (49%) and 33 on day 28 (59%). Clinical and parasitological monitoring was carried out on day 7 on 28 subjects, on day 14 on 13 subjects and on day 21 on 18 subjects. Residual parasitaemia with presence of trophozoites was found in 7 of 30 subjects on day 3 (23%), and in 6 of 28 subjects on day 7 (21%) who had a temperature less than 37.5 °C. These patients can be considered as late parasitological failures. All monitoring performed on day 28 was negative. Gametocytes were found in 3 patients (9%) despite the use of primaquine. The continuing low parasitaemia on day 3 and 7 in more than one fifth of cases raises the question of the efficacy of chloroquine in southern Haiti.
CONCLUSIONS: Results suggest a decrease of chloroquine susceptibility for treatment of P. falciparum malaria cases in southern Haiti. Consequently, there is a need to strengthen malaria treatment surveillance and to study the effectiveness of chloroquine in Haiti by monitoring patients after treatment.
Medical Subject Headings
Adolescent; Adult; Aged; Antimalarials; Child; Child, Preschool; Chloroquine; Drug Resistance; Female; Haiti; Humans; Infant; Malaria, Falciparum; Male; Middle Aged; Plasmodium falciparum; Young Adult