During a five-year period, 457 women who underwent partial, segmental, or total mastectomy were assessed for multicentricity (31%), nipple-areola involvement (17%), and bilateral breast carcinoma (9%). These factors determined the extent of surgery performed and the possibilities for later breast reconstruction. The frequency of nipple-areola involvement in breast cancer strongly indicates the need for alternatives to their preservation for breast reconstruction. The study concludes that total mastectomy for invasive carcinoma is the preferred method of treatment for early breast cancer until further clinical trials have assessed the value of segmentectomy.
Samhouri, F.; Block, M.; and Kambouris, A.
"Surgical Management of Multicentricity, Nipple-Areola Involvement, and Bilaterality in Breast Carcinoma,"
Henry Ford Hospital Medical Journal
: Vol. 29
Available at: https://scholarlycommons.henryford.com/hfhmedjournal/vol29/iss2/4