The frequency content of heart sounds and murmurs in patients with implanted bioprosthetic valves may reveal evidence of degenerative changes before such changes are clinically apparent. An increased dominant frequency of the heart sound caused by a bioprosthetic valve in either the aortic or mitral positions suggests stiffening of the leaflets. While a musical systolic murmur of a bioprosthetic valve in the mitral position suggests flutter from a torn, insufficient leaflet, limited observations of musical systolic murmurs in the aortic position do not seem to indicate a degenerated valve.
Stein, Paul D.; Sabbah, Hani N.; Lakier, Jeffrey B.; Kemp, Stephen R.; and Magilligan, Donald J. Jr.
"Frequency Content of Heart Sounds and Systolic Murmurs in Patients with Porcine Bioprosthetic Valves: Diagnostic Value for the Early Detection of Valvular Degeneration,"
Henry Ford Hospital Medical Journal
: Vol. 30
Available at: https://scholarlycommons.henryford.com/hfhmedjournal/vol30/iss3/4