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Henry Ford Hospital Medical Journal

Abstract

Case management strategies for the nutritional support of patients infected with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) are evolving as the disease becomes less rapidly fatal and more chronic. Nutritional status changes in advanced HIV infection are similar in many respects to protein-calorie malnutrition. Current clinical effort and research focuses on the beneficial effects of preserving lean body mass and keeping asymptomatic patients in good nutritional status by preventing micronutrient deficiencies and by treating preexisting nutritional problems rather than attempting to intervene late in the disease's course, after secondary malnutrition has already developed. Nutrition support and intervention trials only late in the disease process have not been promising in reversing weight loss once it has occurred. Special diets, such as lactose- or gluten-free diets, may be helpful in some cases as symptomatic treatment of some opportunistic infections, and such measures may slow additional losses. However, secretory diarrhea, which often seems to he inherent to the disease itself, is not ameliorated by such measures. Current research is focusing on the potential role of glutamine in slowing malabsorption and on combinations of diet and drug treatments. Asymptomatic patients are now the focus of concern. Preserving good nutritional status by attention to preventing weight loss and loss of lean body mass and assuring food safety are primary. Symptomatic patients require specific assistance depending on the presence of opportunistic infections and the drugs required. Specific nutrition support measures depend on whether or not the gut is functional. New issues relating to the nutrition of HIV infected patients include extensive use of unproven or questionable therapies, the lack of utility of low bacteria diets on an outpatient basis, and special challenges arising with infants and children with HIV.

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