Epidermoid cancer of the head and neck occurs most frequently in individuals with predisposing factors for neoplastic development. Primarily these include exposure to smoking and alcohol, although other predisposing factors may he present. Site-speciflc symptoms along with a history of predisposing environmental exposure can direct physicians to suspect head and neck cancer. Endoscopy and ancillary testing are performed for tumor staging and subsequent treatment planning.
Benninger, Michael S.
"Presentation and Evaluation of Patients with Epidermoid Head and Neck Cancers,"
Henry Ford Hospital Medical Journal
: Vol. 40
Available at: https://scholarlycommons.henryford.com/hfhmedjournal/vol40/iss1/34