N-Acetyl-Seryl-Aspartyl-Lysyl-Proline: mechanisms of renal protection in mouse model of systemic lupus erythematosus

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American journal of physiology. Renal physiology


Systemic lupus erythematosus is an autoimmune disease characterized by the development of auto antibodies against a variety of self-antigens and deposition of immune complexes that lead to inflammation, fibrosis, and end-organ damage. Up to 60% of lupus patients develop nephritis and renal dysfunction leading to kidney failure. N-acetyl-seryl-aspartyl-lysyl-proline, i.e., Ac-SDKP, is a natural tetrapeptide that in hypertension prevents inflammation and fibrosis in heart, kidney, and vasculature. In experimental autoimmune myocarditis, Ac-SDKP prevents cardiac dysfunction by decreasing innate and adaptive immunity. It has also been reported that Ac-SDKP ameliorates lupus nephritis in mice. We hypothesize that Ac-SDKP prevents lupus nephritis in mice by decreasing complement C5-9, proinflammatory cytokines, and immune cell infiltration. Lupus mice treated with Ac-SDKP for 20 wk had significantly lower renal levels of macrophage and T cell infiltration and proinflammatory chemokine/cytokines. In addition, our data demonstrate for the first time that in lupus mouse Ac-SDKP prevented the increase in complement C5-9, RANTES, MCP-5, and ICAM-1 kidney expression and it prevented the decline of glomerular filtration rate. Ac-SDKP-treated lupus mice had a significant improvement in renal function and lower levels of glomerular damage. Ac-SDKP had no effect on the production of autoantibodies. The protective Ac-SDKP effect is most likely achieved by targeting the expression of proinflammatory chemokines/cytokines, ICAM-1, and immune cell infiltration in the kidney, either directly or via C5-9 proinflammatory arm of complement system.

Medical Subject Headings

Animals; Cell Movement; Complement System Proteins; Cytokines; Disease Models, Animal; Female; Glomerular Filtration Rate; Intercellular Adhesion Molecule-1; Lupus Erythematosus, Systemic; Lupus Nephritis; Mice; Mice, Inbred MRL lpr; Oligopeptides; T-Lymphocytes

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