Aldehyde Dehydrogenase (ALDH) 2 in Diabetic Heart Diseases
Munukutla S, Pan G, and Palaniyandi SS. Aldehyde Dehydrogenase (ALDH) 2 in Diabetic Heart Diseases. Adv Exp Med Biol 2019; 1193:155-174.
Advances in experimental medicine and biology
A major pathophysiological mechanism behind the development of diabetic heart diseases is oxidative stress mediated by toxic reactive aldehydes such as 4-hydroxynonenal (4HNE). Aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) 2 is a mitochondrial enzyme that has been found to detoxify these deleterious aldehydes and thereby mitigate cardiac damage. Furthermore, its protective role in cellular signaling reverses aberrations caused by hyperglycemia, thereby protecting cardiac function. This chapter assesses the role of ALDH2 in diabetic heart diseases by examining preclinical studies where ALDH2 activity is perturbed in both decreased and increased directions. In doing so, issues in improving ALDH2 activity in select human populations are elucidated, and further research directions are discussed.