Interleukin 4: Its Role in Hypertension, Atherosclerosis, Valvular, and Nonvalvular Cardiovascular Diseases

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Journal of cardiovascular pharmacology and therapeutics


Hypertension is one of the major physiological risk factors for cardiovascular diseases, and it affects more than 1 billion adults worldwide, killing 9 million people every year according to World Health Organization. Also, hypertension is associated with increased risk of kidney disease and stroke. Studying the risk factors that contribute to the pathogenesis of hypertension is key to preventing and controlling hypertension. Numerous laboratories around to globe are very active pursuing research studies to delineate the factors, such as the role of immune system, which could contribute to hypertension. There are studies that were conducted on immune-deficient mice for which experimentally induced hypertension has been ameliorated. Thus, there are possibilities that immune reactivity could be associated with the development of certain type of hypertension. Furthermore, interleukin 4 has been associated with the development of pulmonary hypertension, which could lead to right ventricular remodeling. Also, the immune system is involved in valvular and nonvalvular cardiac remodeling. It has been demonstrated that there is a causative relationship between different interleukins and cardiac fibrosis.

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ePub ahead of print

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