Predictors of Clostridium difficile infection-related mortality among older adults

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Am J Infect Control


BACKGROUND: Over 90% of annual deaths caused by Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) occur in persons aged ≥65 years. However, no large-scale studies have been conducted to investigate predictors of CDI-related mortality among older adults.

METHODS: This case-control study included 540 CDI patients aged ≥60 years admitted to a tertiary care hospital in Detroit, Michigan, between January 2005 and December 2012. Cases were CDI patients who died within 30 days of CDI date. Controls were CDI patients who survived >30 days after CDI date. Cases were matched to controls on a 1:3 ratio based on age and hospital acquisition of CDI.

RESULTS: One-hundred and thirty cases (25%) were compared with 405 controls (75%). Independent predictors of CDI-related mortality included admission from another acute hospital (odds ratio [OR], 8.25; P = .001) or a long-term care facility (OR, 13.12; P = .012), McCabe score ≥2 (OR, 12.19; P < .001), and high serum creatinine (≥1.7 mg/dL) (OR, 3.43; P = .021). The regression model was adjusted for the confounding effect of limited activity of daily living score, total number of antibiotic days prior to CDI, ileus on abdominal radiograph, low albumin (≤2.5 g/dL), elevated white blood cell count (>15 × 1,000/mm3), and admission to intensive care unit because of CDI.

CONCLUSIONS: Predictors of CDI-related mortality reported in this study could be applied to the development of a bedside scoring system for older adults with CDI.

Medical Subject Headings

Aged; Aged, 80 and over; Case-Control Studies; Clostridium Infections; Clostridium difficile; Decision Support Techniques; Female; Humans; Male; Michigan; Middle Aged; Retrospective Studies; Survival Analysis; Tertiary Care Centers

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