Transmission of infection to liver transplant recipients from donors with infective endocarditis: lessons learned
Miceli MH, Gonulalan M, Perri MB, Samuel L, Al Fares MA, Brown K, Bruno DA, Zervos M, Ramesh M, and Alangaden G. Transmission of infection to liver transplant recipients from donors with infective endocarditis: lessons learned. Transpl Infect Dis 2015; 17(1):140-146.
Transplant Infectious Disease
Donors not meeting standard criteria, such as those with bacteremia, are now being used in response to the increasing need for organs for transplantation. Recommended strategies to prevent the occurrence of donor-derived bacteremia include the use of directed antibiotic prophylaxis. However, this approach does not eliminate the risk of infection transmission. Similarly, the management of organ recipients from donors with infective endocarditis (IE) remains uncharacterized. We report 2 cases of donor-derived bacterial infections in liver transplant recipients despite pathogen-specific antibiotic prophylaxis. In both instances, the donors had documented IE treated with appropriate antimicrobial therapy and clearance of bacteremia. Recipients had very distinctive clinical outcomes likely related to pathogen virulence and the extent of donor infection. Persistent infection in the transplanted liver should be suspected in organ recipients of a liver from donors with IE, despite the absence of bacteremia at the time of death and organ procurement. For eradication, recipients may require prolonged pathogen-directed antimicrobial therapy, such as is used for endovascular infections. Prompt recognition of donors with IE, appropriate notification, and prolonged antibiotic prophylaxis are key to reducing the risk of such donor-derived infections.
Medical Subject Headings
Adult; Anti-Bacterial Agents; Antibiotic Prophylaxis; Bacteremia; Endocarditis, Bacterial; Enterococcus faecalis; Female; Gram-Positive Bacterial Infections; Humans; Liver Transplantation; Male; Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus; Middle Aged; Staphylococcal Infections; Staphylococcus aureus; Tissue Donors; Tissue and Organ Procurement; Transplant Recipients