Angiotensin II-mediated hypertension impairs nitric oxide-induced NKCC2 inhibition in thick ascending limbs.
Ramseyer VD, Ortiz PA, Carretero OA, Garvin JL. Angiotensin II-mediated hypertension impairs nitric oxide-induced NKCC2 inhibition in thick ascending limbs. Am J Physiol Renal Physiol. 2016 Apr 15;310(8):F748-F754.
American journal of physiology. Renal physiology
In thick ascending limbs (THALs), nitric oxide (NO) decreases NaCl reabsorption via cGMP-mediated inhibition of Na-K-2Cl cotransporter (NKCC2). In angiotensin (ANG II)-induced hypertension, endothelin-1 (ET-1)-induced NO production by THALs is impaired. However, whether this alters NO's natriuretic effects and the mechanisms involved are unknown. In other cell types, ANG II augments phosphodiesterase 5 (PDE5)-mediated cGMP degradation. We hypothesized that NO-mediated inhibition of NKCC2 activity and stimulation of cGMP synthesis are blunted via PDE5 in ANG II-induced hypertension. Sprague-Dawley rats were infused with vehicle or ANG II (200 ng·kg-1·min-1) for 5 days. ET-1 reduced NKCC2 activity by 38 ± 13% (P < 0.05) in THALs from vehicle-treated rats but not from ANG II-hypertensive rats (Δ: -9 ± 13%). A NO donor yielded similar results as ET-1. In contrast, dibutyryl-cGMP significantly decreased NKCC2 activity in both vehicle-treated and ANG II-hypertensive rats (control: Δ-44 ± 15% vs.
Δ-41 ± 10%). NO increased cGMP by 2.08 ± 0.36 fmol/μg protein in THALs from vehicle-treated rats but only 1.06 ± 0.25 fmol/μg protein in ANG II-hypertensive rats (P < 0.04). Vardenafil (25 nM), a PDE5 inhibitor, restored NO's ability to inhibit NKCC2 activity in THALs from ANG II-hypertensive rats (Δ: -60 ± 9%, P < 0.003). Similarly, NO's stimulation of cGMP was also restored by vardenafil (vehicle-treated: 1.89 ± 0.71 vs. ANG II-hypertensive: 2.02 ± 0.32 fmol/μg protein). PDE5 expression did not differ between vehicle-treated and ANG II-hypertensive rats. We conclude that NO-induced inhibition of NKCC2 and increases in cGMP are blunted in ANG II-hypertensive rats due to PDE5 activation. Defects in the response of THALs to NO may enhance NaCl retention in ANG II-induced hypertension.
Medical Subject Headings
Angiotensin II; Animals; Cyclic CMP; Cyclic GMP; Cyclic Nucleotide Phosphodiesterases, Type 5; Endothelin-1; Hypertension; Loop of Henle; Male; Nitric Oxide; Nitric Oxide Donors; Phosphodiesterase 5 Inhibitors; Rats; Rats, Sprague-Dawley; Solute Carrier Family 12, Member 1; Vardenafil Dihydrochloride