Muhanna A, Nimri F, Almomani ZA, Al Momani L, Likhitsup A, and Hamid F. Small Bowel Metastasis as a Presentation of Testicular Seminoma. Cureus 2021; 13(9):e17962.
Testicular germ cell tumors account for 95% of testicular cancers in men with approximately 71,000 patients being diagnosed with testicular cancer every year. The overall survival of testicular germ cell tumors is approximately 95%. However, the prognosis becomes less favorable when distant metastasis is present. Gastrointestinal (GI) tract metastasis occurs in less than 5% of patients with non-seminomatous tumors, and in less than 1% in patients with pure seminomas. GI metastasis usually involves the colon, esophagus, and stomach with the most common symptoms of GI metastasis being diarrhea, nausea, vomiting, and obstruction. We discuss the case of a 42-year-old male patient with GI manifestations as the first presentation of testicular seminoma with metastasis to the small bowel. Computed tomography of the abdomen and pelvis revealed a small bowel mass, and the diagnosis was confirmed with histopathologic examination of endoscopic biopsy samples. The patient subsequently underwent chemotherapy treatment with close surveillance. Clinicians should maintain a high index of suspicion in the differential diagnosis of abdominal pain in young male patients, especially when associated with symptoms like unexplained weight loss, constitutional symptoms, and testicular pain or swelling. Metastasis to the GI tract from the testis should be promptly diagnosed and managed, as the overall survival rates can significantly decrease with the delay of diagnosis.