Document Type


Publication Date


Publication Title

Advances in chronic kidney disease


Dysregulation of metabolism and utilization of iron can lead to the development and maintenance of anemia of CKD. Anemia is prevalent among patients with CKD. The markers of iron sufficiency or availability of iron are far from perfect which results in inaccurate diagnosis and treatment of anemia with poor outcomes. Hepcidin, a 25 amino acid peptide produced by the hepatocytes, has emerged as the key regulator of uptake and release of iron in the tissues to maintain a steady supply of iron to erythron and other tissues while avoiding higher levels of iron that could be detrimental to the organs. Hepcidin itself is regulated by the supply of iron, the need for erythropoiesis, and the state of inflammation. Alterations in hepcidin levels are associated with restricted erythropoiesis, anemia, and iron overload. Discovery of hepcidin and elucidation of its mechanism of action and consequences of its upregulation and suppression have unraveled important insight into many hematologic disorders including anemia of CKD. This knowledge has also unlocked unique opportunities to modulate hepcidin via agonists and antagonists of hepcidin and its feedback pathways to treat clinical conditions. Many such agents are being developed and have potential therapeutic utility in future.

PubMed ID






First Page


Last Page




To view the content in your browser, please download Adobe Reader or, alternately,
you may Download the file to your hard drive.

NOTE: The latest versions of Adobe Reader do not support viewing PDF files within Firefox on Mac OS and if you are using a modern (Intel) Mac, there is no official plugin for viewing PDF files within the browser window.