Patil R, Prashar R, and Patel A. Heterogeneous Manifestations of Posttransplant Lymphoma in Renal Transplant Recipients: A Case Series. Transplant Proc 2021; 53(5):1519-1527.
Posttransplant lymphoproliferative disorder (PTLD) occurs in 1% to 3% of adult renal transplant recipients (RTRs). PTLD has a heterogeneous presentation and is often associated with Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) and immunosuppression. We present a descriptive case series of 16 RTRs who demonstrate a variety of PTLD manifestations. Fifty-six percent received rabbit antithymocyte globulin induction, and 37.5% received basiliximab. Maintenance immunosuppression included glucocorticoids, tacrolimus, and mycophenolate mofetil. Median time from transplantation to PTLD diagnosis was 96.5 months. PTLD involved a single site in 44% of RTRs and multiple sites in 56%. PTLD was localized to the gastrointestinal tract in 9 RTRs, in lymph nodes in 9, central nervous system in 4, bone marrow in 3, skin in 3, lungs in 2, perinephric space in 2, mediastinum in 1, and native kidney in 1. PTLD was EBV positive in 8 RTRs, monomorphic/monoclonal in 14, and of B-cell lineage in 13. Three RTRs had T-cell PTLD. Immunosuppressive agents, except glucocorticoids, were discontinued at diagnosis. Treatment was chemotherapy either alone (in 14 RTRs) or in combination with radiation. Complete remission was achieved in 62.5% of RTRs. Renal dysfunction developed in 62.5% of RTRs, and 4 received dialysis. The overall mortality rate was 62.5%, with median time of death 6.5 months after diagnosis. PTLD that was EBV negative and had T-cell involvement presented with aggressive disease and a higher mortality. Clinicians should be aware of the various PTLD manifestations. Early diagnosis and a multidisciplinary approach to treatment is crucial for improved patient outcomes.
Medical Subject Headings
Adult; Epstein-Barr Virus Infections; Female; Herpesvirus 4, Human; Humans; Immunosuppression; Immunosuppressive Agents; Kidney Transplantation; Lymphoma; Lymphoproliferative Disorders; Male; Mycophenolic Acid; Postoperative Complications; Renal Dialysis; Tacrolimus; Treatment Outcome