Mohiuddin N, Frinak S, and Yee J. Sodium-based osmotherapy for hyponatremia in acute decompensated heart failure. Heart Fail Rev 2021.
Heart failure reviews
Acute decompensated heart failure (ADHF) accounts for more than 1 million hospital admissions annually and is associated with high morbidity and mortality. Decongestion with removal of increased total body sodium and total body water are goals of treatment. Acute kidney injury (AKI) or chronic kidney disease (CKD) is present in two-thirds of patients with ADHF. The pathophysiology of ADHF and AKI is bidirectional and synergistic. AKI and CKD complicate the management of ADHF by decreasing diuretic efficiency and excretion of sodium and water. Among patients hospitalized with ADHF, hyponatremia is the most common electrolyte abnormality and is classically encountered with volume overload. ADHF represents an additional therapeutic challenge particularly when oligoanuria is present. Predilution continuous venovenous hemofiltration with sodium-based osmotherapy can safely increase plasma sodium concentration without deleteriously increasing total body sodium. We present a detailed methodology that addresses the issue of hypervolemic hyponatremia in patients with ADHF and AKI.
ePub ahead of print