Update on Diabetic Nephropathy: Core Curriculum 2018.
Umanath K, and Lewis JB. Update on diabetic nephropathy: Core curriculum 2018. Am J Kidney Dis 2018; 71(6):884-895.
American journal of kidney diseases : the official journal of the National Kidney Foundation
Diabetic kidney disease and diabetic nephropathy are the leading cause of end-stage kidney disease in the United States and most developed countries. Diabetes accounts for 30% to 50% of the incident cases of end-stage kidney disease in the United States. Although this represents a significant public health concern, it is important to note that only 30% to 40% of patients with diabetes develop diabetic nephropathy. Specific treatment of patients with diabetic nephropathy can be divided into 4 major arenas: cardiovascular risk reduction, glycemic control, blood pressure control, and inhibition of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS). Recommendations for therapy include targeting a hemoglobin A