Thick and Diffuse Subarachnoid Blood as a Treatment Effect Modifier of Clazosentan After Subarachnoid Hemorrhage
Mayer SA, Aldrich EF, Bruder N, Hmissi A, Macdonald RL, Viarasilpa T, Marr A, Roux S, and Higashida RT. Thick and Diffuse Subarachnoid Blood as a Treatment Effect Modifier of Clazosentan After Subarachnoid Hemorrhage. Stroke 2019.
Stroke; a journal of cerebral circulation
Background and Purpose- Clazosentan, an endothelin receptor antagonist, has been shown to reduce angiographic vasospasm and vasospasm-related morbidity after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH), although no effect on long-term functional outcome has been demonstrated. Thick clot on initial computed tomography is associated with an increased risk of vasospasm and delayed cerebral ischemia. In this post hoc analysis, we hypothesized that use of clazosentan in this subpopulation would provide stronger benefit. Methods- We analyzed SAH patients enrolled in the CONSCIOUS-2 and CONSCIOUS-3 studies (Clazosentan to Overcome Neurological Ischemia and Infarction Occurring After Subarachnoid Hemorrhage) and compared the effects of clazosentan 5 mg/h, 15 mg/h, and placebo starting the day after aneurysm repair. The analysis was performed separately based on the presence or absence of thick (≥4 mm) and diffuse (≥3 cisterns) SAH on admission computed tomography. The primary composite end point was all-cause mortality and vasospasm-related morbidity at 6 weeks, and the main secondary end point was the extended Glasgow Outcome Scale at 3 months, adjusted for admission clinical grade. Results- Of 1718 randomized patients, 919 (53%) had thick and diffuse SAH. The primary composite end point in this group occurred in 36% of placebo-treated patients (n=294), 30% patients treated with clazosentan 5 mg/h (n=514; relative risk, 0.82; 95% CI, 0.67-0.99), and 19% patients treated with clazosentan 15 mg/h (n=111; relative risk, 0.54; 95% CI, 0.36-0.80). Despite this, death or poor functional outcome (Glasgow Outcome Scale ≤4) occurred in 33% of placebo-treated patients, 34% of patients treated with clazosentan 5 mg/h (relative risk 1.02; 95% CI, 0.84-1.23), and 35% of patients treated with clazosentan 15 mg/h (relative risk 1.14; 95% CI, 0.88-1.48). Conclusions- In an enriched population with thick and diffuse SAH, clazosentan at a dose of 5 and 15 mg/h was able to significantly reduce vasospasm-related morbidity in a dose-dependent manner. The absence of an effect on long-term functional status likely reflects the complexity and multiplicity of factors that contribute to poor outcome after SAH. Clinical Trial Registration- URL: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT00558311; NCT00940095.
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