Tsivgoulis G, Lioutas VA, Varelas P, Katsanos AH, Goyal N, Mikulik R, Barlinn K, Krogias C, Sharma VK, Vadikolias K, Dardiotis E, Karapanayiotides T, Pappa A, Zompola C, Triantafyllou S, Kargiotis O, Ioakeimidis M, Giannopoulos S, Kerro A, Tsantes A, Mehta C, Jones M, Schroeder C, Norton C, Bonakis A, Chang J, Alexandrov AW, Mitsias P, and Alexandrov AV. Direct oral anticoagulant- vs vitamin K antagonist-related nontraumatic intracerebral hemorrhage. Neurology 2017; 89(11):1142-1151.
OBJECTIVE: To compare the neuroimaging profile and clinical outcomes among patients with intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) related to use of vitamin K antagonists (VKAs) or direct oral anticoagulants (DOACs) for nonvalvular atrial fibrillation (NVAF).
METHODS: We evaluated consecutive patients with NVAF with nontraumatic, anticoagulant-related ICH admitted at 13 tertiary stroke care centers over a 12-month period. We also performed a systematic review and meta-analysis of eligible observational studies reporting baseline characteristics and outcomes among patients with VKA- or DOAC-related ICH.
RESULTS: We prospectively evaluated 161 patients with anticoagulation-related ICH (mean age 75.6 ± 9.8 years, 57.8% men, median admission NIH Stroke Scale [NIHSSadm] score 13 points, interquartile range 6-21). DOAC-related (n = 47) and VKA-related (n = 114) ICH did not differ in demographics, vascular risk factors, HAS-BLED and CHA2DS2-VASc scores, and antiplatelet pretreatment except for a higher prevalence of chronic kidney disease in VKA-related ICH. Patients with DOAC-related ICH had lower median NIHSSadm scores (8 [3-14] vs 15 [7-25] points, p = 0.003), median baseline hematoma volume (12.8 [4-40] vs 24.3 [11-58.8] cm3, p = 0.007), and median ICH score (1 [0-2] vs 2 [1-3] points, p = 0.049). Severe ICH (>2 points) was less prevalent in DOAC-related ICH (17.0% vs 36.8%, p = 0.013). In multivariable analyses, DOAC-related ICH was independently associated with lower baseline hematoma volume (p = 0.006), lower NIHSSadm scores (p = 0.022), and lower likelihood of severe ICH (odds ratio [OR] 0.34, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.13-0.87, p = 0.025). In meta-analysis of eligible studies, DOAC-related ICH was associated with lower baseline hematoma volumes on admission CT (standardized mean difference = -0.57, 95% CI -1.02 to -0.12, p = 0.010) and lower in-hospital mortality rates (OR = 0.44, 95% CI 0.21-0.91, p = 0.030).
CONCLUSIONS: DOAC-related ICH is associated with smaller baseline hematoma volume and lesser neurologic deficit at hospital admission compared to VKA-related ICH.
Medical Subject Headings
Administration, Oral; Aged; Anticoagulants; Atrial Fibrillation; Brain; Cerebral Hemorrhage; Cross-Sectional Studies; Female; Humans; Male; Observational Studies as Topic; Prospective Studies; Stroke; Treatment Outcome; Vitamin K