Super-Refractory Status Epilepticus
Cuero MR, and Varelas PN. Super-refractory status epilepticus. Curr Neurol Neurosci Rep 2015; 15(11):74.
Current neurology and neuroscience reports
Although the vast majority of patients with status epilepticus (SE) respond fairly well to the first- or second-line anti-epileptics, a minority require anesthetic agents to put the seizures under control. An even smaller number of patients do not even respond to those and constitute the subgroup of super-refractory SE. Because of the small numbers, there are no definitive studies regarding its etiology, pathophysiology, and treatment, and those are still based on expert opinions. Encephalitides, either infectious, autoimmune, or paraneoplastic may be the main etiological factors. Induced pharmacological coma, immunosuppression, electrical brain stimulation, hypothermia, and ketamine are few of the newer but unproven therapeutic approaches that should be considered.
Medical Subject Headings
Animals; Anticonvulsants; Autoimmunity; Humans; Seizures; Status Epilepticus; Treatment Outcome