Emerging potential of exosomes and noncoding microRNAs for the treatment of neurological injury/diseases
Chopp M, and Zhang ZG. Emerging potential of exosomes and noncoding microRNAs for the treatment of neurological injury/diseases. Expert Opin Emerg Drugs 2015:20(4):523-526.
Expert opinion on emerging drugs
Recent discoveries of cellular generation of exosomes, small (∼ 30 - 100 nm) complex lipid membrane structures which encapsulate and transport proteins, RNAs, including microRNAs (miRNAs) have provided new insight in how cells within organisms communicate. These discoveries will likely have a major impact on the treatment of disease, with cancers and neurological diseases as evident targets. Exosomes provide a major medium of intercellular communications and thereby, there being a potential by altering communications and instructions for protein production, we can employ exosomes to treat diseases. We now have an opportunity to treat neurological disease by modifying intercellular communication networks. Recent work demonstrating that the therapeutic benefit provided by stem cells for the treatments of stroke and traumatic brain injury depend on their generation and release of exosomes provides a foundation for exosome-based therapy. Cell-free exosomes have also been recently employed to effectively treat stroke and brain trauma. The content of exosomes, particularly their miRNA cargo which can concurrently impact the post-transcriptional regulation of many genes, can be regulated. We are at the cusp of capitalizing on this important means of intercellular communications for the treatment of diseases, such as cancers and neurological diseases, among many others.
Medical Subject Headings
Cell Communication; Exosomes; Humans; MicroRNAs; Neoplasms; Nervous System Diseases; RNA, Untranslated; Trauma, Nervous System