Intracranial electrographic analysis of preictal spiking and ictal onset in uni- and bitemporal epilepsy.
Wasade VS, Gaddam S, Burdette DE, Schultz L, Spanaki-Varelas M, Constantinou JE, and Elisevich K. Intracranial electrographic analysis of preictal spiking and ictal onset in uni- and bitemporal epilepsy. Epileptic Disord 2015; 17(2):156-164.
AIM: Ictal onset patterns in bilateral mesial temporal lobe epilepsy have not been comprehensively studied. A retrospective review of intracranial electrographic data was undertaken to establish whether it is possible to distinguish between unilateral and bilateral mesial temporal lobe epilepsy based on ictal onset patterns, including periodic preictal spiking.
METHODS: A total of 470 ictal onset patterns were analyzed by bitemporal extraoperative electrocorticography in 13 patients with medically intractable mesial temporal lobe epilepsy. Ictal onset patterns were categorized, by frequency, as type A (<12 >Hz), type B (12-40 Hz) and type C (>40 Hz). Preictal rhythmic spiking, of at least five seconds duration, and time to contralateral propagation were also measured with each ictal event. We determined if the proportion of "ictal onset pattern frequencies" or "incidence of preictal spiking" differed between unilateral and bilateral mesial temporal lobe epilepsy.
RESULTS: Seven patients with unilateral mesial temporal lobe epilepsy received surgery and achieved Engel class I outcomes, while the remaining six did not undergo resective surgery, due to the bilateral ictal onsets in extraoperative electrocorticography. The proportion of patients experiencing any preictal spikes was higher in unitemporal than in bitemporal cases (100% vs 50%;p=0.069). Ofthe470 ictal onset patterns analyzed (174 unitemporal and 296 bitemporal), a significant greater percentage of preictal spikes was found in unilateral cases (78% unitemporal vs 14% bitemporal; p=0.002). Low-frequency patterns were more evident in bitemporal cases (45%) than in unitemporal (10%), although the difference was not statistically significant (p=0.129). No differences were detected between the unitemporal and bitemporal groups regarding age at onset or at presentation.
CONCLUSION: A greater proportion of pre ictal spiking, based on extraoperative electrocorticography, was present in unilateral, compared to bilateral, mesial temporal lobe epilepsy. Further studies are warranted to determine the causal significance of preictal spiking in mesial temporal lobe epilepsy.
Medical Subject Headings
Adult; Electroencephalography; Epilepsy, Temporal Lobe; Female; Humans; Male; Middle Aged