CD133+Exosome Treatment Improves Cardiac Function after Stroke in Type 2 Diabetic Mice
Venkat P, Cui C, Chen Z, Chopp M, Zacharek A, Landschoot-Ward J, Culmone L, Yang XP, Xu J, and Chen J. CD133+Exosome Treatment Improves Cardiac Function after Stroke in Type 2 Diabetic Mice. Transl Stroke Res 2020.
Transl Stroke Res
Cardiac complications post-stroke are common, and diabetes exacerbates post-stroke cardiac injury. In this study, we tested whether treatment with exosomes harvested from human umbilical cord blood derived CD133+ cells (CD133+Exo) improves cardiac function in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) stroke mice. Adult (3-4 m), male, BKS.Cg-m+/+Lepr(db)/J (db/db, T2DM) and non-DM (db+) mice were randomized to sham or photothrombotic stroke groups. T2DM-stroke mice were treated with phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) or CD133+Exo (20 mug, i.v.) at 3 days after stroke. T2DM sham and T2DM+CD133+Exo treatment groups were included as controls. Echocardiography was performed, and mice were sacrificed at 28 days after stroke. Cardiomyocyte hypertrophy, myocardial capillary density, interstitial fibrosis, and inflammatory factor expression were measured in the heart. MicroRNA-126 expression and its target gene expression were measured in the heart. T2DM mice exhibit significant cardiac deficits such as decreased left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) and shortening fraction (LVSF), increased left ventricular diastolic dimension (LVDD), and reduced heart rate compared to non-DM mice. Stroke in non-DM and T2DM mice significantly decreases LVEF compared to non-DM and T2DM-sham, respectively. Cardiac dysfunction is worse in T2DM-stroke mice compared to non-DM-stroke mice. CD133+Exo treatment of T2DM-stroke mice significantly improves cardiac function identified by increased LVEF and decreased LVDD compared to PBS treated T2DM-stroke mice. In addition, CD133+Exo treatment significantly decreases body weight and blood glucose but does not decrease lesion volume in T2DM-stroke mice. CD133+Exo treatment of T2DM mice significantly decreases body weight and blood glucose but does not improve cardiac function. CD133+Exo treatment in T2DM-stroke mice significantly decreases myocardial cross-sectional area, interstitial fibrosis, transforming growth factor beta (TGF-beta), numbers of M1 macrophages, and oxidative stress markers 4-HNE (4-hydroxynonenal) and NADPH oxidase 2 (NOX2) in heart tissue. CD133+Exo treatment increases myocardial capillary density in T2DM-stroke mice as well as upregulates endothelial cell capillary tube formation in vitro. MiR-126 is highly expressed in CD133+Exo compared to exosomes derived from endothelial cells. Compared to PBS treatment, CD133+Exo treatment significantly increases miR-126 expression in the heart and decreases its target gene expression such as Sprouty-related, EVH1 domain-containing protein 1 (Spred-1), vascular cell adhesion protein (VCAM), and monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 (MCP1) in the heart of T2DM-stroke mice. CD133+Exo treatment significantly improves cardiac function in T2DM-stroke mice. The cardio-protective effects of CD133+Exo in T2DM-stroke mice may be attributed at least in part to increasing miR-126 expression and decreasing its target protein expression in the heart, increased myocardial capillary density and decreased cardiac inflammatory factor expression.
ePub ahead of print