Specialized Pro-Resolving Lipid Mediators: Emerging Therapeutic Candidates for Multiple Sclerosis
Zahoor I, and Giri S. Specialized Pro-Resolving Lipid Mediators: Emerging Therapeutic Candidates for Multiple Sclerosis. Clin Rev Allergy Immunol 2020.
Clinical reviews in allergy & immunology
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a neuroinflammatory disease in which unresolved and uncontrolled inflammation disrupts normal cellular homeostasis and leads to a pathological disease state. It has long been recognized that endogenously derived metabolic by-products of omega fatty acids, known as specialized pro-resolving lipid mediators (SPMs), are instrumental in resolving the pathologic inflammation. However, there is minimal data available on the functional status of SPMs in MS, despite the fact that MS presents a classical model of chronic inflammation. Studies to date indicate that dysfunction of the SPM biosynthetic pathway is responsible for their altered levels in patient-derived biofluids, which contributes to heightened inflammation and disease severity. Collectively, current findings suggest the contentious role of SPMs in MS due to variable outcomes in biological matrices across studies conducted so far, which could, in part, also be attributed to differences in population characteristics. It seems that SPMs have neuroprotective action on MS by exerting proresolving effects on brain microglia in its preclinical model; however, there are no reports demonstrating the direct effect of SPMs on oligodendrocytes or neurons. This reveals that "one size does not fit all" notion holds significance for MS in terms of the status of SPMs in other inflammatory conditions. The lack of clarity served as the impetus for this review, which is the first of its kind to summarize the relevant data regarding the role of SPMs in MS and the potential to target them for biomarker development and future alternative therapies for this disease. Understanding the mechanisms behind biological actions of SPMs as resolution mediators may prevent or even cure MS and other neurodegenerative pathologies.
ePub ahead of print