Protein Phosphatase 2A Regulates Phenotypic and Metabolic Alteration of Microglia Cells in HFD-Associated Vascular Dementia Mice via TNF-α/Arg-1 Axis
Nematullah M, Rashid F, Nimker S, and Khan F. Protein Phosphatase 2A Regulates Phenotypic and Metabolic Alteration of Microglia Cells in HFD-Associated Vascular Dementia Mice via TNF-α/Arg-1 Axis. Mol Neurobiol 2023; 60(7):4049-4063.
Protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A), the activity of which is dictated by the composition of its regulatory subunit, is strongly related to the progression of neurodegenerative disease. The potential role of PP2A on the phenotypic transition of microglial cells under obese conditions is poorly explored. An understanding of the role of PP2A and identification of regulatory subunits contributing to microglial phenotypic transitions in obese condition may serve as a therapeutic target for obesity-associated neurodegeneration. C57BL/6 mice were exposed to obese-associated vascular dementia conditions by performing unilateral common carotid artery occlusion on obese mice of microglial polarization and PP2A activity using flow cytometry, real-time PCR, western blotting, and immunoprecipitation enzymatic assay, followed identifications of PP2A regulatory subunits using LCMS and RT-PCR. Chronic HFD feeding significantly increased the populations of infiltrated macrophages, showing a high percentage of CD86(+) in VaD mice, and the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines, and we observed that PP2A modulates metabolic reprogramming of microglia by regulating OXPHOS/ECAR activity. Using Co-IP and LCMS, we identified the six specific regulatory subunits, namely PPP2R2A, PPP2R2D, PPP2R5B, PPP2R5C, PPP2R5D, and PPP2R5E, that are associated with microglial-activation during obesity-associated-VaD. Interestingly, pharmacological up-regulation of PP2A more significantly suppressed the expression of TNF-alpha than other pro-inflammatory-cytokines and increased the expression of Arginase-1, suggesting that PP2A modulates microglial-phenotypic transitions through TNF-α/Arg-1 axis. Our present findings demonstrate microglial polarization in HFD associated with VaD, and point towards a therapeutic target by providing specific PP2A regulatory-subunits implicated in microglial activation during obesity-related-vascular-dementia.
Medical Subject Headings
Mice; Animals; Protein Phosphatase 2; Microglia; Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha; Dementia, Vascular; Neurodegenerative Diseases; Mice, Inbred C57BL; Cytokines