Ischemic stroke as initial manifestation of systemic lupus erythematosus: A case report and review of the literature
Ioannidis S, Mavridis M, and Mitsias PD. Ischemic stroke as initial manifestation of systemic lupus erythematosus: A case report and review of the literature. eNeurologicalSci 2018; 13:26-30.
Stroke is a frequent occurrence among patients suffering from systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), but it rarely occurs as the initial manifestation of the disease. We here present the case of a 37 year-old patient who developed an acute cerebellar ischemic stroke as initial event of SLE: elevated partial thromboplastin time and ESR, thrombocytopenia, anti-ds-DNA, anti-SSA, anti-JO-1, and the lupus anticoagulant were detected, and the diagnosis of SLE was established. In addition, we reviewed the literature in order to clarify the demographic, clinical, imaging and outcome characteristics of such a presentation, and found 10 similar cases. Most patients were young (age 31.7 ± 8.5 years) and women (8/11, 72.7%). Stroke most often affected the vertebrobasilar territory (7/11, 63.6%). The stroke mechanism was not clearly defined in these cases. Treatment with immunosuppression and anticoagulation was considered to be a reasonable choice for early secondary stroke prevention. The occurrence of ischemic stroke, primarily in the vertebrobasilar system among young patients, especially women, should always raise suspicion for underlying SLE, and prompt diagnostic investigations to confirm or exclude its presence.