Mesenchymal Stem Cell-Derived Exosomes Provide Neuroprotection and Improve Long-Term Neurologic Outcomes in a Swine Model of Traumatic Brain Injury and Hemorrhagic Shock
Williams AM, Dennahy IS, Bhatti UF, Halaweish I, Xiong Y, Chang P, Nikolian VC, Chtraklin K, Brown J, Zhang Y, Zhang ZG, Chopp M, Buller B, and Alam HB. Mesenchymal stem cell-derived exosomes provide neuroprotection and improve long-term neurologic outcomes in a swine model of traumatic brain injury and hemorrhagic shock. J Neurotrauma 2019; 36(1):54-60.
Journal of neurotrauma
Combined traumatic brain injury (TBI) and hemorrhagic shock (HS) remains a leading cause of preventable death worldwide. Mesenchymal stem cell-derived exosomes have demonstrated promise in small animal models of neurologic injury. To investigate the effects of exosome treatment in a clinically realistic large animal model, Yorkshire swine underwent TBI and HS. Animals were maintained in shock for 2 h before resuscitation with normal saline (NS). Animals were then resuscitated either with NS (3 × volume of shed blood) or with the same volume of NS with delayed exosome administration (1 × 1013 particles/4 mL) (n = 5/cohort). Exosomes were administered 9 h post-injury, and on post-injury days (PID) 1, 5, 9, and 13. Neurologic severity scores (NSS) were assessed for 30 days, and neurocognitive functions were objectively measured. Exosome-treated animals had significantly lower NSS (p < 0.05) during the first five days of recovery. Exosome-treated animals also had a significantly shorter time to complete neurologic recovery (NSS = 0) compared with animals given NS alone (days to recovery: NS = 16.8 ± 10.6; NS + exosomes = 5.6 ± 2.8; p = 0.03). Animals treated with exosomes initiated neurocognitive testing earlier (days to initiation: NS = 9.6 ± 0.5 vs. NS + exosomes = 4.2 ± 0.8; p = 0.008); however, no difference was seen in time to mastery of tasks. In conclusion, treatment with exosomes attenuates the severity of neurologic injury and allows for faster neurologic recovery in a clinically realistic large animal model of TBI and HS.