Glioma CpG island methylator phenotype (G-CIMP): biological and clinical implications.
Malta TM, de Souza CF, Sabedot TS, Silva TC, Mosella MQS, Kalkanis SN, Snyder J, Castro AVB, and Noushmehr H. Glioma cpg island methylator phenotype (g-cimp): Biological and clinical implications. Neuro Oncol 2018; 20(5):608-620.
Gliomas are a heterogeneous group of brain tumors with distinct biological and clinical properties. Despite advances in surgical techniques and clinical regimens, treatment of high-grade glioma remains challenging and carries dismal rates of therapeutic success and overall survival. Challenges include the molecular complexity of gliomas, as well as inconsistencies in histopathological grading, resulting in an inaccurate prediction of disease progression and failure in the use of standard therapy. The updated 2016 World Health Organization (WHO) classification of tumors of the central nervous system reflects a refinement of tumor diagnostics by integrating the genotypic and phenotypic features, thereby narrowing the defined subgroups. The new classification recommends molecular diagnosis of isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH) mutational status in gliomas. IDH-mutant gliomas manifest the cytosine-phosphate-guanine (CpG) island methylator phenotype (G-CIMP). Notably, the recent identification of clinically relevant subsets of G-CIMP tumors (G-CIMP-high and G-CIMP-low) provides a further refinement in glioma classification that is independent of grade and histology. This scheme may be useful for predicting patient outcome and may be translated into effective therapeutic strategies tailored to each patient. In this review, we highlight the evolution of our understanding of the G-CIMP subsets and how recent advances in characterizing the genome and epigenome of gliomas may influence future basic and translational research.
Medical Subject Headings
CpG Islands; DNA Methylation; Epigenomics; Genome, Human; Glioma; Humans; Mutation; Phenotype