Mesenchymal Stem Cell-Derived Exosomes Provide Neuroprotection and Improve Long-Term Neurologic Outcomes in a Swine Model of Traumatic Brain Injury and Hemorrhagic Shock.
Journal of neurotrauma
Combined traumatic brain injury (TBI) and hemorrhagic shock (HS) remains a leading cause of preventable death worldwide. Mesenchymal stem cell-derived exosomes have demonstrated promise in small animal models of neurologic injury. To investigate the effects of exosome treatment in a clinically realistic large animal model, Yorkshire swine underwent TBI and HS. Animals were maintained in shock for 2 h before resuscitation with normal saline (NS). Animals were then resuscitated either with NS (3 × volume of shed blood) or with the same volume of NS with delayed exosome administration (1 × 10