Title

The role of imaging in the management of adults with diffuse low grade glioma: A systematic review and evidence-based clinical practice guideline.

Document Type

Article

Publication Date

12-1-2015

Publication Title

Journal of neuro-oncology

Abstract

QUESTION: What is the optimal imaging technique to be used in the diagnosis of a suspected low grade glioma, specifically: which anatomic imaging sequences are critical for most accurately identifying or diagnosing a low grade glioma (LGG) and do non-anatomic imaging methods and/or sequences add to the diagnostic specificity of suspected low grade gliomas?

TARGET POPULATION: These recommendations apply to adults with a newly diagnosed lesion with a suspected or histopathologically proven LGG.

LEVEL II: In patients with a suspected brain tumor, the minimum magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) exam should be an anatomic exam with both T2 weighted and pre- and post-gadolinium contrast enhanced T1 weighted imaging. CRITICAL IMAGING FOR THE IDENTIFICATION AND DIAGNOSIS OF LOW GRADE GLIOMA:

LEVEL II: In patients with a suspected brain tumor, anatomic imaging sequences should include T1 and T2 weighted and Fluid Attenuation Inversion Recovery (FLAIR) MR sequences and will include T1 weighted imaging after the administration of gadolinium based contrast. Computed tomography (CT) can provide additional information regarding calcification or hemorrhage, which may narrow the differential diagnosis. At a minimum, these anatomic sequences can help identify a lesion as well as its location, and potential for surgical intervention. IMPROVEMENT OF DIAGNOSTIC SPECIFICITY WITH THE ADDITION OF NON-ANATOMIC (PHYSIOLOGIC AND ADVANCED IMAGING) TO ANATOMIC IMAGING:

LEVEL II: Class II evidence from multiple studies and a significant number of Class III series support the addition of diffusion and perfusion weighted MR imaging in the assessment of suspected LGGs, for the purposes of discriminating the potential for tumor subtypes and identification of suspicion of higher grade diagnoses.

LEVEL III: Multiple series offer Class III evidence to support the potential for magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) and nuclear medicine methods including positron emission tomography and single-photon emission computed tomography imaging to offer additional diagnostic specificity although these are less well defined and their roles in clinical practice are still being defined.

QUESTION: Which imaging sequences or parameters best predict the biological behavior or prognosis for patients with LGG?

TARGET POPULATION: These recommendations apply to adults with a newly diagnosed lesion with a suspected or histopathologically proven LGG.

RECOMMENDATION: Anatomic and advanced imaging methods and prognostic stratification

LEVEL III: Multiple series suggest a role for anatomic and advanced sequences to suggest prognostic stratification among low grade gliomas. Perfusion weighted imaging, particularly when obtained as a part of diagnostic evaluation (as recommended above) can play a role in consideration of prognosis. Other imaging sequences remain investigational in terms of their role in consideration of tumor prognosis as there is insufficient evidence to support more formal recommendations as to their use at this time.

QUESTION: What is the optimal imaging technique to be used in the follow-up of a suspected (or biopsy proven) LGG?

TARGET POPULATION: This recommendation applies to adults with a newly diagnosed low grade glioma.

LEVEL II: In patients with a diagnosis of LGG, anatomic imaging sequences should include T2/FLAIR MR sequences and T1 weighted imaging before and after the administration of gadolinium based contrast. Serial imaging should be performed to identify new areas of contrast enhancement or significant change in tumor size, which may signify transformation to a higher grade.

LEVEL III: Advanced imaging utility may depend on tumor subtype. Multicenter clinical trials with larger cohorts are needed. For astrocytic tumors, baseline and longitudinal elevations in tumor perfusion as assessed by dynamic susceptibility contrast perfusion MRI are associated with shorter time to tumor progression, but can be difficult to standardize in clinical practice. For oligodendrogliomas and mixed gliomas, MRS may be helpful for identification of progression.

Medical Subject Headings

Adult; Brain; Brain Neoplasms; Evidence-Based Medicine; Glioma; Humans; Neoplasm Grading; Neuroimaging

PubMed ID

26530262

Volume

125

Issue

3

First Page

457

Last Page

479

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