Vepoloxamer improves functional recovery in rat after traumatic brain injury: A dose-response and therapeutic window study

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Neurochemistry international


Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a major cause of death and disability worldwide. There are no effective therapies available for TBI patients. Vepoloxamer is an amphiphilic polyethylene-polypropylene-polyethylene tri-block copolymer that seals membranes and restores plasma membrane integrity in damaged cells. We previously demonstrated that treatment of TBI rats with Vepoloxamer improves functional recovery. However, additional studies are needed to potentially translate Vepoloxamer treatment from preclinical studies into clinical applications. We thus conducted a study to investigate dose-response and therapeutic window of Vepoloxamer on functional recovery of adult rats after TBI. To identify the most effective dose of Vepoloxamer, male Wistar adult rats with controlled cortical impact (CCI) injury were randomly treated with 0 (vehicle), 100, 300, or 600 mg/kg of Vepoloxamer, administered intravenously (IV) at 2 h after TBI. We then performed a therapeutic window study in which the rats were treated IV with the most effective single dose of Vepoloxamer at different time points of 2 h, 4 h, 1 day, or 3 days after TBI. A battery of cognitive and neurological tests was performed. Animals were killed 35 days after TBI for histopathological analysis. Dose-response experiments showed that Vepoloxamer at all three tested doses (100, 300, 600 mg/kg) administered 2 h post injury significantly improved cognitive functional recovery, whereas Vepoloxamer at doses of 300 and 600 mg/kg, but not the 100 mg/kg dose, significantly reduced lesion volume compared to saline treatment. However, Vepoloxamer at 300 mg/kg showed significantly improved neurological and cognitive outcomes than treatment with a dose of 600 mg/kg. In addition, our data demonstrated that the dose of 300 mg/kg of Vepoloxamer administered at 2 h, 4 h, 1 day, or 3 days post injury significantly improved neurological function compared with vehicle, whereas Vepoloxamer administered at 2 h or 4 h post injury significantly improved cognitive function compared with the 1-day and 3-day treatments, with the most robust effect administered at 2 h post injury. The present study demonstrated that Vepoloxamer improves functional recovery in a dose-and time-dependent manner, with therapeutic efficacy compared with vehicle evident even when the treatment is initiated 3 days post TBI in the rat.

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Humans; Rats; Male; Animals; Rats, Wistar; Brain Injuries, Traumatic; Polyethylenes; Recovery of Function; Disease Models, Animal

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