Clinical Evaluation and Physical Exam Findings in Patients with Anterior Shoulder Instability.
Lizzio VA, Meta F, Fidai M, and Makhni EC. Clinical evaluation and physical exam findings in patients with anterior shoulder instability. Curr Rev Musculoskelet Med 2017; 10(4):434-441
Curr Rev Musculoskelet Med
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The goal of this paper is to provide an overview in evaluating the patient with suspected or known anteroinferior glenohumeral instability.
RECENT FINDINGS: There is a high rate of recurrent subluxations or dislocations in young patients with history of anterior shoulder dislocation, and recurrent instability will increase likelihood of further damage to the glenohumeral joint. Proper identification and treatment of anterior shoulder instability can dramatically reduce the rate of recurrent dislocation and prevent subsequent complications. Overall, the anterior release or surprise test demonstrates the best sensitivity and specificity for clinically diagnosing anterior shoulder instability, although other tests also have favorable sensitivities, specificities, positive likelihood ratios, negative likelihood ratios, and inter-rater reliabilities. Anterior shoulder instability is a relatively common injury in the young and athletic population. The combination of history and performing apprehension, relocation, release or surprise, anterior load, and anterior drawer exam maneuvers will optimize sensitivity and specificity for accurately diagnosing anterior shoulder instability in clinical practice.