Clinical Characteristics and Long-term Outcomes After Septic Arthritis of the Native Glenohumeral Joint: A 20-Year Retrospective Review.
Septic arthritis of the native glenohumeral joint is rare, and there is little information available regarding the natural progression and long-term joint outcomes of this pathology. The authors performed a retrospective analysis of 97 patients with culture-positive glenohumeral septic arthritis between 1995 and 2015 at their institution with a mean clinical follow-up of 83.1 months. Patient records were reviewed to document demographic and laboratory data, clinical presentation, postoperative complications, recurrences, and subsequent shoulder arthroplasty. Common comorbidities uncovered included 20 immunocompromised patients (20.6%), intravenous drug use among 27 patients (27.8%), diabetes mellitus among 40 patients (41.2%), and 18 patients (18.5%) receiving hemodialysis. Staphylococcus aureus was the most common pathogen identified (61 patients; 62.8%), followed by streptococcal species (17 patients; 17.2%). Hematogenous spread of infection was the most common etiology of shoulder sepsis (40.2%). Seven patients (7.2%) developed shoulder sepsis of undetermined etiology in the absence of established risk factors, and 16 patients (16.4%) developed recurrent glenohumeral septic arthritis at a mean of 40 months following initial eradication of infection. Three patients (3.0%) eventually underwent same-side shoulder arthroplasty at a mean of 18 months following septic arthritis, with none experiencing a periprosthetic joint infection. Glenohumeral septic arthritis is highly unlikely in the absence of medical risk factors. Long-term recurrence after clinically successful treatment is low (16.5%), and few patients undergo elective arthroplasty following shoulder septic arthritis. However, orthopedic surgeons can expect 30% to 40% of patients to require multiple trips to the operating room to successfully treat the initial joint infection, regardless of treatment method. [Orthopedics. 2019; 42(1):e118-e123.].
Medical Subject Headings
Adult; Aged; Aged, 80 and over; Arthritis, Infectious; Arthroplasty, Replacement, Shoulder; Bacterial Infections; Female; Humans; Male; Middle Aged; Postoperative Complications; Reoperation; Retrospective Studies; Risk Factors; Shoulder Joint; Synovial Fluid; Treatment Outcome