Intraoperative Adductor Canal Block for Augmentation of Periarticular Injection in Total Knee Arthroplasty: A Cadaveric Study.
Pepper AM, North TW, Sunderland AM, and Davis JJ. Intraoperative adductor canal block for augmentation of periarticular injection in total knee arthroplasty: A cadaveric study. J Arthroplasty 2016; 31(9):2072-2076
The Journal of arthroplasty
BACKGROUND: Function is often sacrificed for pain control after total knee arthroplasty. Motor-sparing blocks, including adductor canal block (ACB) and periarticular injection (PAI), have gained interest to address this compromise. Our study evaluates the anatomic feasibility, accuracy, and safety of intraoperative ACB as an adjunct to PAI by analyzing 3 different injection orientations and needle configurations.
METHODS: Eleven cadaveric knees underwent a standard medial parapatellar arthrotomy. Blunt dissection through the suprapatellar recess was performed. Using a 10-mL syringe, various colors of dyed liquid gelatin were injected toward the proximal and distal adductor canal (AC) using 3 needle configurations. Medial dissection of the knee for each specimen was performed. The position of each needle and location of injected dye was identified and described relative to the AC.
RESULTS: Accuracy of each injection orientation and/or needle configuration was different: 86% for a blunt needle in the distal AC, 57% for blunt needle in the proximal AC, and 14% for a spinal needle in the proximal AC. Puncture of the femoral artery was observed with the spinal needle 43% of the time and had the closest average proximity to the femoral artery with a distance of 5.9 mm. There were no vascular punctures using blunt needles, and the average distance from the femoral artery with proximal and distal orientation was 10.2 mm and 15.4 mm, respectively.
CONCLUSION: Intraoperative ACB augmentation of PAI appears to be anatomically feasible and safe. There was decreased accuracy and increased risk of vascular puncture using a 3.5-inch spinal needle. A blunt 1.5-inch needle directed toward the distal AC had the highest accuracy while minimizing vascular injury.
Medical Subject Headings
Aged; Aged, 80 and over; Anesthetics, Local; Arthroplasty, Replacement, Knee; Cadaver; Female; Humans; Injections, Intra-Articular; Knee Joint; Male; Muscle, Skeletal; Nerve Block; Pain Management; Pain, Postoperative; Prospective Studies; Reproducibility of Results; Treatment Outcome