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JB JS Open Access


The Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System (PROMIS) computer adaptive tests (CATs) have emerged as an efficient technique for measuring patient-reported outcomes among orthopaedic patients. The purpose of this study was to investigate the floor and ceiling (F/C) effects, time to completion (TTC), and question burden of PROMIS CATs administered to patients presenting to a shoulder and sports medicine orthopaedic clinic.

Methods: Patients prospectively completed PROMIS CATs including the physical function (PROMIS-PF) or upper-extremity function (PROMIS-UE), pain interference (PROMIS-PI), and depression (PROMIS-D) domains at their initial encounter and were retrospectively included in this study. Adult patients indicating a single problem involving either the shoulder or knee were included. Patients were also grouped as either preoperative or nonoperative. F/C effects were defined as the proportion of respondents scoring the highest (ceiling) or lowest (floor) possible score across a given domain.

Results: Included were 2,952 patients (average age, 51.0 ± 16.9 years). The PROMIS-UE, PROMIS-PF, and PROMIS-PI demonstrated negligible F/C effects across all shoulder and knee patients (<2%). The PROMIS-D displayed moderate to significant floor effects (13.9% to 18.9%) and a 0% ceiling effect in all main patient groups. The mean TTC and mean question burden of the PROMIS-UE, PROMIS-PF, and PROMIS-PI ranged from 45.3 to 54.4 seconds and 4.1 to 4.9 questions for all patient groups, while the PROMIS-D exhibited a TTC ranging from 20.9 to 38.6 seconds for all groups and a question burden that ranged from 6.2 to 6.7 questions.

Conclusions: The PROMIS-PF, PROMIS-UE, and PROMIS-PI demonstrated favorable F/C effects, TTC, and question burden among both nonoperative and preoperative patients. These findings justify consideration of the PROMIS-PF, PROMIS-UE, and PROMIS-PI for clinical and research applications involving shoulder and knee sports medicine patients. Additionally, we found moderate to significant floor effects for the PROMIS-D in all patient groups, which may be multifactorial in nature and may not be unexpected in patients with an isolated joint concern.

Clinical Relevance: This study highlights the psychometric properties of PROMIS CAT forms for knee and shoulder patients. Understanding these basic properties is important in considering the adoption of PROMIS CAT forms for patients with musculoskeletal conditions.

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ePub ahead of print