Clonal evaluation of early onset prostate cancer by expression profiling of ERG, SPINK1, ETV1, and ETV4 on whole-mount radical prostatectomy tissue

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The Prostate


BACKGROUND: Expression profiles of erythroblast transformation-specific (ETS)-related gene fusions and serine protease inhibitor Kazal-type 1 (SPINK1) in early onset prostate cancer have not been thoroughly explored.

METHODS: We retrieved 151 radical prostatectomy specimens from young men with prostate cancer (<55 >years) and characterized the expression of ETS-related gene (ERG), SPINK1, ETS Variant 1 (ETV1), and ETV4 by dual immunohistochemistry and dual RNA in situ hybridization. Age, race, family history, preoperative prostate-specific antigen, biochemical recurrence, and pathological variables using whole-mount radical prostatectomy tissue were collected.

RESULTS: A total of 313 tumor nodules from 151 men including 68 (45%) Caucasians and 61 (40%) African Americans were included in the analysis. Positive family history of prostate cancer was seen in 65 (43%) patients. Preoperative prostate-specific antigen ranged from 0.3 to 52.7 ng/mL (mean = 7.04). The follow-up period ranged from 1 to 123.7 months (mean = 30.3). Biochemical recurrence was encountered in 8 of 151 (5%). ERG overexpression was observed in 85 of 151 (56%) cases, followed by SPINK1 in 61 of 151 (40%), ETV1 in 9 of 149 (6%), and ETV4 in 4 of 141 (3%). There were 25 of 151 (17%) cases showing both ERG and SPINK1 overexpression within different regions of either the same tumor focus or different foci. Higher frequency of ERG overexpression was seen in younger patients (≤45 years old; 76% vs 49%, P = .002), Caucasian men (71% vs 41% P = .0007), organ-confined tumors (64% vs 33%, P = .0008), and tumors of Gleason Grade groups 1 and 2 (62% vs 26%, P = .009). SPINK1 overexpression was more in African American men (68% vs 26%, P = .00008), in tumors with high tumor volume (>20%) and with anterior located tumors. ETV1 and ETV4 demonstrated rare overexpression in these tumors, particularly in the higher-grade tumors.

CONCLUSION: This study expands the knowledge of the clonal evolution of multifocal cancer in young patients and support differences in relation to racial background and genetics of prostate cancer.

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ePub ahead of print





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