Outcomes associated with apixaban vs warfarin in patients with renal dysfunction
Hanni C, Petrovitch E, Ali M, Gibson W, Giuliano C, Holzhausen J, Makowski C, Pallisco A, Patel N, Sutter D, To L, and Yost R. Outcomes associated with apixaban vs warfarin in patients with renal dysfunction. Blood Adv 2020; 4(11):2366-2371.
Apixaban in patients with impaired renal function is supported by limited data. Landmark clinical trials evaluating apixaban in patients with atrial fibrillation and/or acute venous thromboembolism excluded patients with creatinine clearance (CrCl)/min. This multicenter, retrospective chart review was conducted to evaluate the safety and effectiveness of apixaban compared with warfarin in patients with CrCl/min. Included patients were newly initiated on apixaban or warfarin for at least 45 days with a CrCl/min. Patients were evaluated for thrombosis and bleeding outcomes 6 months following initiation of anticoagulation. The primary outcome was the time to first bleeding or thrombosis event. A total of 128 patients met inclusion criteria in the apixaban group and 733 patients in the warfarin group. Time to first bleeding or thrombosis event was significantly different between the apixaban and warfarin groups. Cox proportional hazards model was conducted to control for potential confounding factors for the primary outcome. After controlling for atrial fibrillation and coronary artery bypass grafting, risk of thrombotic and bleeding events was lower in the apixaban group (hazard ratio, 0.47; 95% confidence interval, 0.25-0.92). There was not a statistical difference between time to thrombosis (83 days vs 54 days, P = .648), rate of thrombosis (5.5% vs 10.3%, P = .08), time to bleeding (46 days vs 54 days, P = .886), or rate of bleeding (5.5% vs 10.9%, P = .06). The severity of bleeding and thrombotic events was not different between groups. Apixaban may serve as a reasonable alternative compared with warfarin in patients with severe renal dysfunction.