Jorgensen SCJ, Trinh TD, Zasowski EJ, Lagnf AM, Bhatia S, Melvin SM, Simon SP, Rosenberg JR, Steed ME, Estrada SJ, Morrisette T, Davis SL, and Rybak MJ. Evaluation of the INCREMENT-CPE, Pitt Bacteremia and qPitt Scores in Patients with Carbapenem-Resistant Enterobacteriaceae Infections Treated with Ceftazidime-Avibactam. Infect Dis Ther 2020.
Infect Dis Ther
BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to evaluate the predictive performance of the INCREMENT-CPE (ICS), Pitt bacteremia score (PBS) and qPitt for mortality among patients treated with ceftazidime-avibactam for carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) infections.
METHODS: Retrospective, multicenter, cohort study of patients with CRE infections treated with ceftazidime-avibactam between 2015 and 2019. The primary outcome was 30-day all-cause mortality. Predictive performance was determined by assessing discrimination, calibration and precision.
RESULTS: In total, 109 patients were included. Thirty-day mortality occurred in 18 (16.5%) patients. There were no significant differences in discrimination of the three scores [area under the curve (AUC) ICS 0.7039, 95% CI 0.5848-0.8230, PBS 0.6893, 95% CI 0.5709-0.8076, and qPitt 0.6847, 95% CI 0.5671-0.8023; P > 0.05 all pairwise comparisons]. All scores showed adequate calibration and precision. When dichotomized at the optimal cut-points of 11, 3, and 2 for the ICS, PBS, and qPitt, respectively, all scores had NPV > 90% at the expense of low PPV. Patients in the high-risk groups had a relative risk for mortality of 3.184 (95% CI 1.35-8.930), 3.068 (95% CI 1.094-8.606), and 2.850 (95% CI 1.016-7.994) for the dichotomized ICS, PBS, and qPitt, scores respectively. Treatment-related variables (early active antibiotic therapy, combination antibiotics and renal ceftazidime-avibactam dose adjustment) were not associated with mortality after controlling for the risk scores.
CONCLUSIONS: In patients treated with ceftazidime-avibactam for CRE infections, mortality risk scores demonstrated variable performance. Modifications to scoring systems to more accurately predict outcomes in the era of novel antibiotics are warranted.
ePub ahead of print