Cytomegalovirus and effect on early chimerism in patients with myeloid disorders undergoing stem cell transplantation using reduced toxicity ablative conditioning regimen.
Farhan SY, Divine G, Neme K, Pelland D, Wautelet S, Mikulandric N, Ruemenapp K, Peres E, and Janakiraman N. Cytomegalovirus and effect on early chimerism in patients with myeloid disorders undergoing stem cell transplantation using reduced toxicity ablative conditioning regimen. Blood 2015; 126(23):3.
Cytomegalovirus (CMV) remains a significant cause of morbidity after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (SCT). The influence of CMV on the chimerism in reduced toxicity ablative conditioning SCT in myeloid disorders is ill defined. A recent report published in Blood by Sellar et al showed that in patients who received alemtuzumab-based regimen, the group of patients who were recipient positive (R+)/ Donor negative (D-) had CMV-specific T cells that are exclusively of recipient origin and significantly influenced the chimerism status toward recipients. To explore the impact of seropositivity and seronegativity of CMV in recipients and donors on early chimerism, we undertook a retrospective analysis of patients with myeloid disorders who received four days of fludarabine and busulfan with or without anti-thymocyte globulin (ATG) at our center in the last 10 years. Methods: Chimerism assay was performed using a quantitative fluorescence-based short tandem repeat-polymerase chain reaction (STR-PCR) with capillary electrophoresis for PCR product resolution. Results: 42 patients were identified and included in the study. All patients received fludarabine (40 mg/m2/day x 4 doses), busulfan (3.2mg/kg/dose IV x 4 doses). Of these 42 patients, 25 had anti-thymocyte globulin. There were 28 male and 14 female patients with a median age of 62 years (range 48-74yrs). Median time to follow up was 8 months (0.8-54 months). Disease risk was considered advanced in 21 patients, intermediate in 4 and early in 17. Median blast number at time of SCT was 5%. Stem cell source included peripheral blood in all patients. There were no primary graft failures. Total recipient cell chimerism showed increase or persistence of recipient chimerism in 5/11 (45%) of R+D- vs 2/6 (33.3%) of R-D- in the group of patients who received ATG, p=1.0, with a mean of recipient chimerism at day 100 of 20.4% in the R+D- group compared to a mean of 17% in the R-D- group. In the group who did not get ATG, recipient chimerism persistence or increase was not that different between the R+D- patients 3/4 (75%) compared to 4/4 (100%) in patients who were seronegative for CMV (R-), p=1.0. The mean of recipient chimerism at day 100 in the R+D- no ATG group was 23.25% with a median of 12% while the mean and median at day 100 in the R- no ATG group were 35.25% and 19.5% respectively (p=0.573).When looking at the persistence or increase in recipient chimerism in the group of patients who were R+D-, in those who got ATG it was 45% increase vs 75% increase in those who did not get ATG (p=0.569) with a median of 12% vs 0% respectively (p=0.49). Also increase or persistence of recipient chimerism was 33.3 % in patients who were R- and got ATG vs 100% in R- no ATG patients (p=0.076)with median at day 100 of 0 vs 19.5% (p=0.098). Conclusion: In this small cohort from a single center, we found that in patients with myeloid disorders who received reduced toxicity ablative conditioning regimen, the group of patients who received ATG, there was no statistically significant increase in recipient chimersim in the R+D- group compared to R-D- group. This is different from what Sellar et al found in a small group of patients who received alemtuzumab. These results may indicate a difference between ATG and alemtuzumab in the effect of CMV seropositivity and negativity on the recipient chimerism, which need to be studied further in a larger retrospective or prospective study. This is especially important in myeloid disorders since persistent or increase in recipient chimerism may identify high-risk patient cohorts who may benefit from additional therapeutic interventions.