Multimorbidity is associated with uptake of influenza vaccination

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OBJECTIVE: Patients with chronic conditions have higher rates of severe influenza-related illness and mortality. However, influenza vaccination coverage in high-risk populations continues to be suboptimal. We describe the association between cumulative disease morbidity, measured by a previously validated multimorbidity index, and influenza vaccination among community-dwelling adults.

METHODS: We obtained interview and medical record data for participants  ≥18 years who sought outpatient care for influenza-like illness between 2011 and 2016 as part of an outpatient-based study of influenza vaccine effectiveness. We defined cumulative disease morbidity by using medical diagnosis codes to calculate a multimorbidity-weighted index (MWI) for each participant. MWI and influenza vaccination status was evaluated by logistic regression. Akaike information criterion was calculated for all models.

RESULTS: Overall, 1458 (48%) of participants out of a total of 3033 received influenza vaccination. The median MWI was 0.9 (IQR 0.00-3.5) and was higher among vaccinated participants (median 1.6 versus 0.0; p < 0.001). We found a positive linear association between MWI and vaccination, and vaccination percentages were compared between categories of MWI. Compared to patients with no multimorbidity (MWI = 0), odds of vaccination were 17% higher in the second category (MWI 0.01-1.50; [OR: 1.17, 95% CI: 0.92-1.50]), 58% higher in the third category (MWI 1.51-3.00; [OR: 1.58, 95% CI: 1.26-1.99]), 130% higher in the fourth category (MWI 3.01-6.00; [OR: 2.30, 95% CI: 1.78-2.98]) and 214% higher in the fifth category (MWI 6.01-45.00;[OR: 3.14, 95% CI: 2.41-4.10]). Participants defined as high-risk had 86% greater odds of being vaccinated than non-high-risk individuals (OR: 1.86, 95% CI: 1.56-2.21). The AIC was lowest for MWI compared with high-risk conditions.

CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest a dose response relationship between level of multimorbidity and likelihood of influenza vaccination. Compared with high-risk condition designations, MWI provided improved precision and a better model fit for the measurement of chronic disease and influenza vaccination.

Medical Subject Headings

Adult; Ambulatory Care; Female; Humans; Independent Living; Influenza Vaccines; Influenza, Human; Logistic Models; Male; Michigan; Middle Aged; Models, Immunological; Multimorbidity; Odds Ratio; Vaccination

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