Simple and reproducible linear measurements to determine ventricular enlargement in adults

Document Type


Publication Date


Publication Title

Surg Neurol Int


BACKGROUND: Recent studies have suggested that Evan's Index (EI) is not accurate and instead endorse volumetric measurements. Our aim was to evaluate the reproducibility of linear measurements and their correlation to ventricular volume.

METHODS: Using magnetic resonance (MR) images of 30 patients referred for normal pressure hydrocephalus (NPH), EI, frontal-occipital horn ratio (FOR), third ventricular width and height, frontal horn width (FHW), and callosal angle (CA) at the foramen of Monro and the posterior commissure (PC) were independently measured by residents in neurosurgery and radiology, a neurosurgeon and radiologist, and a medical student. Intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC) were calculated to establish inter-rater agreement among the reviewers. Pearson's correlation coefficients were done to assess the relationship of the linear measurements with total ventricular volume. Kappa analyses were performed to assess the degree of agreement between cutpoints determined by the ROC analysis for the linear measurements and reviewers' gestalt impression about ventricular size with volumetric abnormality.

RESULTS: The overall inter-rater agreement among reviewers was almost perfect for EI (ICC = 0.913), FOR (ICC = 0.830), third ventricular width, FHW (ICC = 0.88), and CA at PC (ICC = 0.865), substantial for temporal horn width (ICC = 0.729) and CA at foramen of Monro (ICC = 0.779), and moderate for third ventricular height (ICC = 0.496). EI, FOR, third ventricular width, temporal horn width, and CA at PC measures correlated with total ventricular volume. There was fair-to-almost-perfect agreement of the individual reviewer's gestalt responses of abnormatility with volumetric abnormality. Gestalt responses were better for more senior raters.

CONCLUSION: Linear measurements are reliable and reproducible methods for determining ventricular enlargement.

PubMed ID




First Page