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Nat Sci Sleep


PURPOSE: Insufficient nocturnal sleep is a primary source of excessive daytime sleepiness. Most previous research has focused on the disparity between sleep demands and study start times in adolescents. Fewer studies have focused on elementary schoolchildren. We hypothesize that late sleep timing is connected to excessive daytime sleepiness in a sample of Russian children and adolescents. The major goals of our study were to evaluate excessive daytime sleepiness in Russian schoolchildren and adolescents using the Russian version of the Pediatric Daytime Sleepiness Scale (PDSS) and to estimate its relationship with sleep-wake parameters using the Munich Chronotype Questionnaire (MCTQ).

MATERIALS AND METHODS: Student subjects were from public educational facilities in the Republic of Karelia. They completed both the PDSS and the Munich Chronotype Questionnaire to estimate sleep parameters and chronotype (MSFsc). Five hundred and eleven students provided data for the PDSS and sleep-wake variables, and 479 for the full MCTQ data.

RESULTS: The overall prevalence of Excessive Daytime Sleepiness (EDS) in our sample was 18%. The total PDSS score was inversely correlated with sleep length on school nights and was independent of respondents' sex. Higher PDSS scores were associated with later bedtimes on school days and free days, and shorter sleep duration on school days. Late chronotype and more pronounced social jetlag were both positively correlated with high PDSS scores. A negative correlation was found between chronotype and the duration of the sleep period on weekdays (p < 0.001) and a positive correlation was found on weekends (p < 0.001). Longer average sleep duration was positively related to less daytime sleepiness.

CONCLUSION: This study suggests that excessive daytime sleepiness is chronotype-dependent. School start times could be shifted to a later hour to prolong sleep and reduce EDS.

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