The role of fast and slow EEG activity during sleep in males and females with major depressive disorder.
Cheng P, Goldschmied J, Deldin P, Hoffmann R, and Armitage R. The role of fast and slow EEG activity during sleep in males and females with major depressive disorder. Psychophysiology 2015; 52(10):1375-1381.
Sleep difficulties are highly prevalent in depression, and appear to be a contributing factor in the development and maintenance of symptoms. However, despite the generally acknowledged relationship between sleep and depression, the neurophysiological substrates underlying this relationship still remain unclear. Two main hypotheses were tested in this study. The first hypothesis states that sleep in depression is characterized by inadequate generation of restorative sleep, as indexed by reduced amounts of slow-wave activity. Conversely, the second hypothesis states that poor sleep in depression is due to intrusions of fast-frequency activity that may be reflective of a hyperaroused central nervous system. This study aimed to test both hypotheses in a large sample of individuals with clinically validated depression, as well as to examine sex as a moderator. Results suggest that depression is better characterized by an overall decrease in slow-wave activity, which is related to elevated anxious and depressed mood the following morning. Results also suggest that females may be more likely to experience fast frequency activity related to depression symptom severity.
Medical Subject Headings
Adult; Brain; Brain Waves; Depressive Disorder, Major; Electroencephalography; Female; Humans; Male; Polysomnography; Sleep; Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders; Young Adult