Gender Differences in the Efficacy and Safety of Chronic Nightly Zolpidem

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J Clin Sleep Med


STUDY OBJECTIVES: Studies have shown pharmacokinetic differences for hypnotics in women compared to men, but few studies have assessed either short-or long-term differences in efficacy and safety.

METHODS: To evaluate gender differences in the efficacy and safety of chronic nightly zolpidem (10 mg), we did a post hoc assessment of a large clinical trial. In the trial, participants with primary insomnia (n = 89), ages 23-70, meeting DSM-IV-TR criteria for primary insomnia were randomized, double blind, to nightly zolpidem, 10 mg (n = 47) or placebo (n = 42) 30 minutes before bedtime nightly for 12 months. Polysomnographic sleep on 2 nights in months 1 and 8 and likelihood of next-day sleepiness, rebound insomnia, and dose escalation were evaluated in months 1, 4, and 12.

RESULTS: Relative to placebo, zolpidem significantly increased sleep efficiency and reduced sleep latency and wake after sleep onset assessed at months 1 and 8, with no differences in efficacy between women and men and no diminution of efficacy over months. On a next-day multiple sleep latency test (MSLT), no residual sedation was observed for either women or men. No rebound insomnia or dose escalation was seen with no gender differences in either.

CONCLUSIONS: In adults with primary insomnia, nightly zolpidem administration showed no gender differences in acute or chronic efficacy or in next-day sleepiness. Zolpidem remained efficacious and safe across 12 months. CLINCIAL TRIALS REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01006525; Trial Name: Safety and Efficacy of Chronic Hypnotic Use; http://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT01006525.

Medical Subject Headings

Adult; Aged; Double-Blind Method; Drug Administration Schedule; Female; Follow-Up Studies; Humans; Hypnotics and Sedatives; Male; Middle Aged; Polysomnography; Pyridines; Sex Factors; Sleep; Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders; Treatment Outcome; Young Adult; Zolpidem

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